The assessment of language learners is having a growing impact in English language teaching and applied linguistics. A formal evaluation of students writing . “Writing is a key skill in second language learning and all teachers need to evaluate their students’ writing abilities. The issues surrounding the assessment of. Sara Cushing Weigle – Assessing – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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In order for decisions based on test results to be fair, it is important to understand as precisely as possible what ability the test is attempting to measure, and to what extent the test weiglf actually measuring that ability and not some other ability. In recent years, a number of investigators have explored variations in writing patterns that can be at least partially attributed to cultural influences.
For example, in a general-purpose English test for EFL learners, writing tasks that simu- late the type of writing that these learners might be expected to accomplish can be fairly easily identified: Strategic competence is thus considered to be a general i. While an essay examination is more authentic for these writers than, say, a multiple-choice test of grammar and usage, it is clear from this dis- cussion that authenticity will be an issue when designing tasks for testing academic writing.
A second group of children are majority language speakers in immersion programs or cushhing learning a second language in school. While there has been a considerable body of work undertaken on assessing the writing abilities of native welgle, the issues surrounding the assessment of weile language learners writing abilities are still emerging. The answers to these questions are provided by this book, which examines the theory behind the practice of assessing a student’s writing abilities.
Deb Cushing marked it as to-read May 24, Return to Book Page. Knowledge of the audience includes consideration of many of the social and cultural issues dis- cussed above. These notions The nature of writing ability 29 are essential to consider in describing the writing situation fully and in developing tasks for writing assessment, and will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.
Knowledge of differences in features of discourse structuring across languages and cultures I. I will discuss each of these types of evi- dence briefly. Top Reviews Most recent Top Reviews.
To take an example, suppose a student chooses to write an essay comparing and contrasting the works of Mozart and Beethoven, a writing task that would require a certain amount of knowledge about music. The process of text generation, or encoding internal representations ideas into written text, may be disrupted by the need for lengthy searches for appropriate lexical and syntactic choices. That is, we need to be clear about how this ability – however we define it – is manifested in non-test i.
The writing process ends when the memory probes fail to find additional appropriate content. In this sense, any writing test that involves actual writing, as opposed to completing multiple-choice items, for example, can be wigle a performance test, since the written product represents a performance of writing. While little, if any, research has addressed the relationship between writing apprehension and writing quality in second-language contexts, it may well be that writing apprehension is an equal or greater issue for these writers than for LI writers.
A model for reading wruting evaluate is found in Figure 2. It has been suggested that beneficial washback depends in part upon factors assessing as the importance of the test, the status of the language being tested, and the purpose and format of the test Shohamy et al, As opposed to the Grabe and Kaplan taxonomy of language knowl- edge specifically relevant to writing, the more general taxonomy of components of language ability put forth by Bachman and Palmer and Douglas consists of grammatical knowledge, or knowledge of the fundamental building blocks of language, textual knowledge, or knowledge of how these building blocks are put to- gether to form coherent texts, functional knowledge, or knowledge about how language is used to achieve a variety of communicative functions, and sociolinguistic knowledge, or knowledge about how to use language appropriately in different social settings.
This is a cusing distinc- tion because we are frequently interested in people’s ability to use The nature of writing ability 19 language both for real-time interaction and swra creating coherent texts without the aid of a conversation partner.
Assessing Vocabulary Cambridge Language Assessment. Excho Weeono marked it as to-read Mar 31, However, it is important to know something about characteristics such as age, sex, and educa- tional background so that we can develop tasks that are appropriate for the specific test takers and to avoid biasing test tasks either in favor of or against test takers who have certain characteristics.
Assessing Writing – Sara Cushing Weigle – Google Books
Chapter 5 presents in- formation and advice on designing tasks for writing assessment, and Chapter 6 discusses scoring procedures. Writint texts can thus be placed into the grid created by the intersection of these two axes. Lorie marked it as to-read Oct 18, They also provide a detailed taxonomy listing examples of the variables of setting, task, text, and topic for academic writing. Afandi assessig it did not like it Feb 05, weifle Content analysis usually consists of the judgements of subject- matter experts to determine the adequacy and representativeness of the test content vis-a-vis the domain to which test results are in- tended to generalize.
Bachman and Palmer, One useful model of writing discourse was originally laid out by Vahapassi for an international study of school writing. East Dane Designer Men’s Fashion.
Assessing Writing by Sara Cushing Weigle
Toward a new theory of writing assessment. Thus, knowledge telling follows the straight- ahead form of ordinary speech production and does not require any greater amount of planning or goal setting than does everyday con- versation pp. A useful summary of some of the differences between speaking and writing can be found in Brown In Chinese, writers tend to provide a series of examples ssra stating the main point of the example or tying them together through a generalization, in contrast to the English preference for transparent, explicit connections in prose Matalene, ; cited in Leki, To ask other readers questions about Assessing Writingplease sign up.
Sara Cushing Weigle, has extensive experience in teaching and assessing writing, and has conducted seminal research in this area.
The relationship between writing and speaking is important for language testing, among other reasons, assessimg of the question to what extent writing can be seen as a special case of L2 language use and to what extent writing represents a distinctly different ability from speaking, drawing on many of the same linguistic resources but also relying on distinctly different mental processes.
Reliability is an essential consideration in testing and is a prerequisite for test validity. Linguistic knowledge includes knowledge of the basic structural elements of the language, sociolinguistic knowledge in- cludes knowledge of the ways in which language is used appropriately in a variety of social settings, and discourse knowledge refers to knowledge of the ways in which cohesive text is constructed.
These children need to learn to read and write in a language that is not spoken in their home in order to succeed in school and ultimately in the workplace. That is, since we cannot directly observe a person’s language ability, we saga his or her responses to test items as data from which we make inferences about the ability that underlies the test performance.