Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany. (). (abridged) by Galileo Galilei. To the Most Serene Grand Duchess Mother: Some years ago, as Your. In , Galileo wrote a letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany in order to show how one could argue for the heliocentric system. “Contrary to the sense of the Bible and the intention of the holy Fathers they would have us altogether abandon reason and the evidence of.

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Whereas his critics took the stopping of the sun to mean that sun halts its orbit around the Earth, Galileo interpreted it with a different astronomical viewpoint. If I may speak my opinion freely, I should say further that it would perhaps fit in better with the decorum and majesty of the sacred writings to take measures for preventing every shallow and vulgar writer from giving to his compositions often grounded upon foolish fancies an air of authority by inserting in them passages from the Bible, interpreted or rather distorted into senses as far from the right meaning of Scripture as those authors are near to absurdity who thus ostentatiously adorn their writings.

Therefore let these men begin to apply themselves to an examination of the arguments of Copernicus and others, leaving condemnation of the doctrine as erroneous and heretical to the proper authorities. The first concerns those writings which were published against the existence of the Medicean planets recently discovered by me, in which many passages of holy Scripture were cited. Trivia About Letter to the Gra Let them freely admit that although they may argue that a position is false, it is not in their power to censure a position as erroneous— or in the power of anyone except the Supreme Pontiff, or the Church Councils.

Let us therefore render thanks to Almighty God, who in His beneficence protects us from this clangor by depriving such tthe of all authority, reposing the power of consultation, decision, and decree on such important matters in the high wisdom and benevolence of most prudent. Let Your Highness note further how circumspectly this saint proceeds before affirming any interpretation of Scripture to christins certain and secure from all disturbing difficulties.

He did not ignore the Bible, but he knew very well that if his doctrine were proved, then it could not contradict the Scriptures when they were rightly understood. Sizzi was broken on the wheel in for writing a pamphlet against the king of France.

Hence we name them as if they took place where they appear to us to take place; and from this one may see how natural it is to accommodate things to our customary way of seeing them.

And if this was necessary, there is no wonder at all that it was carried out with great prudence in the holy Bible. Jennifer Brown rated it really liked it Oct 22, Thus grave divines have actually held that the sun was near setting, and chhristina the words themselves seem to say so; Sun, stand thou still, stand thou still. In order to facilitate their designs, they seek so far as possible at least among the common people to make this opinion seem new and to belong to me alone.


Letter to Madame Christina of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany |

Augustine himself, and confirmed in detail by the Bishop of Avila. And it would be necessary to prevent Venus being seen round at one time and forked at another, with very thin horns; as well as many other sensory observations which can never be reconciled with the Ptolemaic system in any way, but are very strong arguments for the Copernican.

Nook0 pages. And thus at the end of his letter of dedication, addressing the pope, he said: These men would perhaps not have fallen into such error had they but paid attention to a most useful doctrine of St. Similarly, with regard to the miracle in the time of Hezekiah, Paul of Burgos was of the opinion that this took place not in the sun but on the sundial.

Not only contradictions and propositions far from true might thus be made to appear in the Bible, but even grave heresies and follies. To this I wish first to remark that among physical propositions there are some with regard to which all human science and reason cannot supply more than a plausible opinion and a probable conjecture in place of a sure and demonstrated knowledge; for example, whether the stars are animate.

Augustine’s reply to those brethren who raised the question whether the heavens really move or stand still: For the sake of those who deserve to be separated from the herd, it is necessary that wise expositors should produce the true senses of such passages, together with the special reasons for which they were set down in these words.

Shelley marked it as to-read Dec 21, The motion of the sun and stability of the earth, they say, is of this sort; hence it is a matter of faith to believe in them, and the contrary view is erroneous. Next, becoming bolder, and hoping though vainly that this seed which first took root in their hypocritical minds would send out branches and ascend to heaven, they began scattering rumors among the people that before long this doctrine would be condemned by the supreme authority.

These will unquestionably accord with the physical conclusions which manifest sense and necessary demonstrations have previously made certain to us. This may be found expressly in some of them; in particular, we find the following words of St. I forbear to speak of those of my own profession who, attaining a knowledge of the holy Scriptures after mundane learning, tickle the ears of the people with affected and studied expressions, and declare that everything they say is to be taken as the law of God.


It was suppressed in Catholic jurisdictions, as were all works of Galileo at that period which dealt with that subject.

What is it to me whether heaven, like a sphere, surrounds the earth on all sides as a mass balanced in the center of the universe, or whether like a dish it merely covers and overcasts the earth?

This letter is entirely dedicated to the relationship between scientific knowledge and biblical exegesis. Galileo has been called the “father of modern observational astronomy”, the “father of modern physics”, lettsr “father of science”, and “the Father of Modern Science”.


Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina – Wikipedia

Moreover, we are unable to affirm that all interpreters of the Bible speak by divine inspiration, for if that were so there would exist no differences between them about the sense of a given passage. They know also that I support this position not only by refuting the arguments of Ptolemy and Aristotle, but by producing many counter-arguments; in particular, some which relate to physical effects whose causes can perhaps ducheas assigned in no other way.

Likewise, that which presents itself to mere sight is as nothing in comparison with the high marvels that the ingenuity of learned men discovers in the heavens by long and accurate observation. First, those who can tell them the meaning of holy Scripture and how they ought to live their lives; and second, those who can accurately account for the true causes of ths phenomena and galuleo them how things are in nature.

Sajida Murtaza rated it liked it Feb 09, Carrie added it Mar 01, Augustine’s, relative to our grad positive statements about things which are obscure and hard to understand by means of reason alone.

Letter to Madame Christina of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany

Help Center Find new research papers in: But if I am not mistaken, something of which we are to take no small account is that by the aid of this Copernican system we have the literal, open, and easy sense of another statement that we read in this same miracle, that the sun stood still in the midst of the heavens. Essays by Galileo Galilei essays. From among a hundred attestations I have selected the following: Galileo was eventually forced to recant his heliocentrism and spent the last years of his life under house arrest on orders of the Roman Lettre.