Taxonomic Notes: Hordeum marinum Huds. is a tertiary wild relative of Barley, H. vulgare L. (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program ). Differs from Hordeum leporinum and Hordeum glaucum in that the junction of the with line drawing: Background and Aims Hordeum marinum. is a species complex that includes the diploid subspecies marinum and both diploid and tetraploid.
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Karyotypes were constructed designating chromosomes from 1 to 7 on the basis of similar chromosome morphology, size and the physical mapping of the probes in marinum karyotypes Fig.
In the present study, although polymorphic signals were detected between accessions BCC and GRA from Greece and Italy, respectively, the physical maps for each probe were very similar, but significantly different from that recorded for the Spanish accession GRA compare karyotypes in Fig.
Open in a separate window. Moreover, the results of detailed karyotype analyses provide the basis for demonstrating the implication of H. Although individual chromosome identification was very difficult with this probe, greater similarities were seen in the pattern of distribution of pAs1 among accessions BCC and GRA than between either of these accessions and accession GRA compare Fig.
This suggests that this sequence is more predisposed to being amplified or deleted as a consequence of independent events in different lineages. Journal List Ann Bot v.
Chromosome identities are indicated in white numbers. It may also be that related forms of the diploid accessions analysed were parentals and underwent significant genomic and chromosomal changes during the generations coming soon after polyploidization.
Download includes an Excel spreadsheet of the attributes, and a PDF explaining the hordeuj and nomenclature. In a few places it also occurs on the upper parts hlrdeum salt-marshes, especially where these are grazed and trampled by cattle or sheep: Abstract Background and Aims Hordeum marinum is a species complex that includes the diploid subspecies marinum and both diploid and tetraploid forms of gussoneanum.
Identification marinun all chromosome arms and their involvement in meiotic homoeologous associations at metaphase I in 2 Hordeum vulgare L. The chromosome morphology, Giemsa banding patterns and meiotic behaviour of Hordeum hybrids suggest the existence of four basic diploid genomes Bothmer et al.
Factsheet – Hordeum marinum
Key Results The identification of each chromosome pair in all subspecies and cytotypes is reported for the first time. This is probably the result of the loss of coastal grazing marsh, filling-in of pools and small ditches, and the strengthening and upgrading of hprdeum defences. A third locus with no counterpart in marinum was located in a subterminal position on the long arm of the satellitized chromosome pair Fig. Dispersal of spikelets is probably assisted horddeum flooding, as winter flood-lines around pools are often marked the following summer by narrow hanks of H.
It is reasonable to assume that this could be due to the amplification of pre-existing interstitial 5SrDNA jarinum in an ancient form present in the Iberian Peninsula after the geographical isolation of marinum populations in glacial refuges during the Pleistocene Jakob et al. Karyotypes from each subspecies marinum accession studied, showing one chromosome of each of the seven homologous pairs.
A survey with and internationally agreed recommendation for barley chromosome nomenclature. Characteristic associates in these open communities include Puccinellia distans, Spergularia marina and the scarce species Polypogon monspeliensis, Puccinellia fasciculata and P.
An autopolyploid origin is supported by a number of cytogenetic studies, including the analysis of C-banded karyotypes and the meiotic behaviour of hybrids Bothmer hrodeum al. Four probes were employed in FISH analyses: The 45SrDNA probe hybridized with two horddeum of chromosomes, providing signals of different intensity. The chromosomal distribution revealed by pAs1 was coincident with that seen for diploid H.
Asia and widely naturalised outside its native range. Cytogenetic and Genome Research. Although the results of this work distinguish the chromosomes of H. Fluorescence in situ hybridization polymorphism using two repetitive DNA clones in different cultivars of wheat. For example, the satellitized chromosome 7 carrying the 5SrDNA locus in its satellite must be at least in part homoeologous to chromosome 5 of the Triticeae group i.
The considerable genome size variation of Hordeum species Poaceae is linked to phylogeny, life form, ecology, and speciation rates. The mature spikes are very brittle and break tip into little clusters of spikelets which tend to disperse together.
Plants Profile for Hordeum marinum (seaside barley)
However, the most submetacentric chromosome pair of gussoneanum also carried an interstitial site gordeum the long arm Fig. Specific chromosomal markers characterized madinum differentiated the genomes of marinum and diploid gussoneanum. Variation in highly repetitive DNA composition of heterochromatin in rye studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The new locus present on the long arm of chromosome 7 in gussoneanum may have been acquired after the separation of this subspecies. The authors thank Adrian Burton for linguistic assistance.
The structure, amount and chromosomal localization of defined repeated DNA sequences in species of the genus Secale. It remains unknown whether marinum was the second genome donor. Perennation – primary Annual.
Although individual probes hybridized madinum more or fewer chromosomal locations in marinum or gussoneanumwhen considering the sequences as whole it is hard to see any clear differences between them in terms of the total amounts of these repetitive DNA sequences. For Permissions, please email: Seedlings occur in spring and autumn but the latter may not survive the winter.
This confirms the putative mainum of gussoneanum as a diploid ancestor of H. Phylogenetic tree including ideograms with the distribution of four repetitive sequences see colour key in the six accessions of Hordeum marinum examined.